|파워포인트 프레젠테이션 역효과 유발(John Sweller, 기사)
|홈 페 이 지
||2007년 4월 05일 22시 44분 07초 [목요일]
| 파워포인트 프레젠테이션 역효과 유발
인간의 뇌는 정보가 말과 글의 형태로 동시에 제공될 경우 처리하는데 더 큰 어려움을 겪는 것으로 나타났다고 호주 과학자들이 주장했다.
5일 호주 언론들에 따르면 뉴사우스 웨일스 대학 연구팀은 뇌의 정보처리 능력을 조사한 결과 말이나 글 어느 한 가지 형태로 정보를 전달했을 때 훨씬 더 잘 처리되고 오랫동안 저장됐으나 동시에 두 가지 형태를 사용해 정보를 제공했을 때는 오히려 정보처리에 어려움을 겪는 것으로 나타났다고 밝혔다.
이는 프레젠테이션 도구로 널리 사용되고 있는 파워포인트가 사실상 정보 전달에 있어 역효과를 낸다는 것을 뜻한다.
연구팀은 또 교사들이 학생들 스스로 문제를 해결할 수 있도록 질문을 던지기 보다는 학생들에게 정확한 답을 알려주는 게 훨씬 이해를 돕는 것으로 나타났다며 교사들이 학생들에게 질문을 던지는 식의 교육방법에 의문을 제기했다.
연구팀은 교회에서 한 사람이 큰 소리로 읽는 성경 구절을 들으며 신자들이 성경을 따라 읽는 방법에 대해서도 의문을 제기하면서 이 경우도 듣거나 읽는 것을 나누어 했을 때 성경구절이 머릿속에 더 잘 들어오고 더 잘 이해되는 것으로 나타났다고 밝혔다.
’인식 부담 이론’을 개발한 연구팀의 존 스웰러 교수는 “파워포인트 프레젠테이션이 오히려 이해를 더 어렵게 하는 것으로 나타났다”면서 “그런 방식은 이제 더 이상 사용하지 않는 게 좋다”고 말했다.
그는 “도표를 사용하는 것은 정보의 다른 형태이기 때문에 효과적이지만 같은 정보를 말과 글로 동시에 전달하는 것은 사람들의 마음에 부담을 주어 이해를 저해하게 되기 때문에 역효과를 내게 되는 것”이라고 설명했다.
그는 교사들의 교육방법에 대해서도 “답이 주어진 문제를 보면 학생들은 기억에 대한 부담이 줄어들어 쉽게 배울 수 있다”면서 “그렇게 되면 다음에 그와 비슷한 문제가 나올 때 자신감이 생겨 쉽게 풀어낼 수 있게 된다”고 말했다.
Powerpoint is power pointless
Professor recommends it gets the bullet
INQUIRER/Wednesday 04 April 2007
The Age writes that Aussie boffins have concluded that presentation software like Powerpoint signally fails to get a message across.
That message will send chills into the hearts of marchitects worldwide while hacks will wonder why anyone ever thought Powerpoint had any point anyroad.
We've all been to presentations where the PC running Powerpoint has given up the ghost leaving the speakers either speechless or rather good, depending on their abilities.
The boffins, according to the report, claim that the human brain takes in more info when information is presented in either verbal or written form but not at the same time.
According to professor John Sweller of the University of New South Wales, the use of Powerpoint is a "disaster". He is calling for the whole shooting match to be abandoned.
We also make this powerful point. Some PRs dish out the entire Powerpoint presentation in paper form before the speaker starts, and we've noticed the younger journalist will assiduously study the document before the woman or man starts speaking. This is a sure recipe for being bored twice.
What the good professor doesn't say is that these kind of software packages were developed by software vendors for the IT industry and it is another sign of how the sloppy practices and values of the computer industry have gained currency in the real world that now the world+dog is Powerpointing away.
Effective and Efficient Education
About PowerPoint or No PowerPoint
You may have seen this post in Slashdot a couple of days ago. It points to an article talking about the research of Australian educator, John Sweller. Sweller developed the “cognitive load theory” which explains how our brains handle new information. He says our working memory can only hold two or three tasks at a time. These tasks are only retained a few seconds. Without rehearsal anything new is gone in about 20 seconds.
Key points about Cognitive Load Theory:
Working memory is only limited when you’re learning new information. Once information is in long-term memory, it can be brought back to working memory in very large amounts.
In a classroom situation, only limited material is going to be retained, unless notes are taken or handed out.
Power-point presentations can backfire if the information on the screen is the same as that which is verbalized, because the audience’s attention will be split between the two.
PowerPoint should be reserved for diagrams, pictures and graphics that are not easily explained with dialog.
Professor Sweller states that the worst PowerPoint presentation is one that is read to students. According to his research, our brains can’t handle reading while listening to someone else read the same material. I won’t be telling this to my pastor who asks everyone to bring a Bible each Sunday for the sole purpose of reading along with him.
I must admit that a presentation where a PowerPoint is read word-for-word is terrible. Guy Kawasaki said it best…
…as soon as the audience figures out that you’re reading the text, it reads ahead of you because it can read faster than you can speak. The result is that you and the audience are out of synch.
Don’t be a Bozo. If you are going to read your PowerPoint, give everyone a handout and send them home. Your audience will be better served.
My earliest recollection of reading in class was in first grade. We all had the same book. We all read the same words aloud together. I remember doing this in every grade through high school. As freshmen I know we read one of Shakespeare’s plays during class. I think it was MacBeth. We did the same with Romeo and Juliet in tenth grade. Shakespearian English was certainly something new for my brain in high school. No wonder I didn’t understand it.
Sweller adds another thing in the article. He says we should not present students with new problems to be solved. We should instead show already-solved problems to them when introducing new information.
The only option we have is to pile on the homework and have the students come to class with much of the material already in long term memory. I’m not sure how that fits with the ban on homework.
I remember freshman chemistry with Dr. Haight. This was long before anyone had ever heard of PowerPoint. Dr. Haight read his notes to us while he wrote them on the board. The man was a speed writer. It was all we could do to keep up with his writing. There certainly wasn’t time to think about what we were writing. For the second semester of freshman chemistry I had Dr. Sadurski. His approach was completely different. His notes were neatly printed using color coordinated markers on overhead transparencies. He would drop a sheet on the overhead and talk about it. We would write as fast as we did the first term, trying to finish before he flipped to the next slide.
I learned chemistry from both of these instructors. The information I was given in class was complete enough that I could go over the notes and do the homework and prepare for the exams. If one of them had used PowerPoint, I think I would have still learned the same amount of chemistry. Most of what I learned as an undergraduate was learned outside of class using materials I acquired during class. I heard it. I saw it. I wrote it down. All those things helped me understand it.
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